COMPARING TEXTS – choice phrases to use 😊

Did you know that V for Vendetta is also a superb text to compare with 1984 by George Orwell?

Comparing texts is a relatively easy task.  The key is to structure your discussion, argument and points clearly.   These sentence starters are a great way to keep your comparison on track and make sure you are discussing BOTH texts.  They are also great SIGNPOSTS to your marker that you are doing your very best to do as the questions has asked, which is to compare the texts.

  • Similarly, . . .
  • In the same way . . .
  • Likewise, . . .
  • In comparison . . .
  • Complementary to this . . .
  • Then again, . . .
  • However, . . .
  • This is in contrast to . . .
  • In contrast, . . .
  • And yet . . .
  • Nevertheless, . . .
  • Conversely, . . .
  • On the contrary, . . .
  • On the other hand, . . .
  • Notwithstanding . . .
  • Whereas . . .
  • In contrast to . . .
  • That aside, . . .
  • While this is the case, (author/director) disputes . . .
  • Despite this, . . .

Finally, feel free to use a number of smaller paragraphs.  Generally, most students’ essays in ATAR English consist of an intro, 3-4 body paragraphs and a conclusion.

But this isn’t a hard and fast rule.  If you need to use more paragraphs because it helps you set your argument out more clearly, then go for it! 🙂



We’ve put up quite a few posts looking at VOICES IN TEXTS. Now we want to look at the other aspect of the VOICE course concept as identified in the SCSA glossary:  NARRATIVE AND AUTHORIAL VOICE.

The NARRATIVE voice is the voice of the NARRATOR and/or CHARACTER in a text.  It may be written from a 1ST PERSON, 2nd PERSON or 3RD PERSON point of view.

AUTHORIAL voice refers to the voice of the author and is a part of that author's writing style.

In the COMPREHENDING SECTION of your exam, you could be asked to identify and/or discuss the VOICE in an unseen text.  Students find this quite tricky, but there are KEY THINGS to look for:

  • 1st, 2nd or 3rd person POV  (We did a post on the significance of this earlier - it’s worth reading if you missed it! 😊)
  • Male / female
  • Approximate age
  • Accent / dialect (and therefore perhaps ethnicity)
  • Attitudes or values identifiable from dialogue, actions and/or thoughts
  • Tone

We’ve included some excerpts here with brief notes on each. Hopefully you can see how the tips above can help you identify the VOICE in an unseen text. 😊


First person POV is used in the excerpt above so a subjective and personal VOICE.  The narrator talks about his brother being buried and worries about ‘how he would breathe’ and if he should ‘put some fruit in the grave’ in case he gets hungry.

The VOICE is obviously that of a young child since they don’t seem to understand death.  We could guess between the ages of 5-10.   Gender is not obvious and there is no detectable accent or dialect.

The NARRATIVE VOICE conveys a sense of loneliness (attitude).  ‘Nobody really talked’ (repetition) and the narrator tells us the teachers and kids at school stayed away.  We could also say the VOICE is one of innocence (attitude).  We’ve already identified that the narrator doesn’t understand about death, but the final sentence - ‘finding him in a drain without his clothes on was worse’ - also conveys this.  This small detail has a lot more meaning for us as readers than it does for the child narrator (innocent).  We know the narrator’s brother has likely been sexually abused and murdered.


We chose this example (Text 1) to show you how important the CONTEXTUAL INFORMATION provided by the examiners can be! 😊  Students were asked to identify the VOICE in the excerpt and explain how it POSITIONED them to view Berlin.

1st person POV so again the VOICE is very subjective (bias) and personal.  The AUTHORIAL VOICE is a female Australian voice conveying her experiences of travelling in Berlin, Germany.   All of this is given in the CONTEXTUAL INFORMATION provided.

We can expand on this by making some inferences.  An Australian travelling in Germany means the VOICE is that of a foreigner or outsider.  Additionally, the VOICE is unwell or ill.  Anna Funder admits in the first sentence that she is hungover, so not in the best state of mind to be objectively making observations about a foreign city.  Her hangover may adversely affect her attitudes towards, and opinions of, Berlin and consequently POSITION READERS to view it in a negative light also.

EXCERPT FROM ‘TROUBLE AFOOT’ BY DANNY KATZ (article, article from an old WACE exam)

Katz uses the 1st person POV – subjective/bias, influenced by personal values, attitudes and beliefs.  The VOICE is that of a 49yr old male and is COLLOQUIAL (i.e. relaxed, conversational) shown through the use of words such as ‘kid, fella, gramps, little bugger’.  Traditional ATTITUDES regarding manners and respect are conveyed by the VOICE who expects the boy to move for him because he is older, dressed snazzy and carrying an expensive cake.

The writer also imagines what the kid is thinking, and in doing so creates a disrespectful, cheeky VOICE for the young boy.

Finally, the VOICE of the article is sarcastic (tone) and classist (attitude)  when it says ‘carrying a cheap novelty footy that was probably stitched together by Bangladeshi orphans.’  The VOICE is also humorous (tone) – ‘disrespect was just oozing out of him, mostly from his little snout.’

IS THIS ARTICLE BY KATZ NARRATIVE OR AUTHORIAL VOICE?   This is a tricky question to answer because it could be BOTH! Danny Katz may be recalling an experience he has had, in this case, the VOICE would be AUTHORIAL. OR, he might have created this lemon tart carrying 49yr old to explore the generation gap that exists in society.  In this case, the VOICE would be NARRATIVE.

At the end of the day, whatever excerpt you are given in your examination/assessment, the examiner will be looking to see if you can identify and discuss the VOICE.  It’s also likely they will call it narrative voice, authorial voice or simply voice in the question.  So don’t worry too much about this 😊


We chose the example above because it uses the 2nd person POV which is unusual.  It could be that the narrator wants to make us part of the story, to put us into the shoes of the character as a way of better understanding the issues.  In this case, the ‘you’ (which is us, the reader) can feel under attack from the VOICE, as if we should have known better.

Another possibility is that they used 2nd person POV because the narrator is older and talking to her younger self.  Either interpretation can be correct, just be sure to support your interpretation with evidence from the text (i.e. a quote). 😊

NOW, let’s identify the VOICE.  The gender and age are not clear.  But the TONE is clear.  The VOICE seems to be critical of Americans and America itself.  The narrator talks about the ‘big hot dog with yellow mustard that nauseated you.’  An iconic symbol of American culture, the hot dog looks great but left you feeling sick on eating it.  This perhaps represents that America is not as good as it may seem, particularly for migrants.

The VOICE is also satirical (tone).  The narrator mocks America saying ‘they were desperately trying to look diverse.  They included a photo of him in every brochure, even those that had nothing to do with his unit.’  The narrator is poking fun at America’s desire to look multicultural, when in fact it is not, so the VOICE is sarcastic.



Following the horrific terrorist attacks in Christchurch, NZ, a young Australian teenager penned an open letter to their PM Jacinda Ardern which has since gained worldwide attention (see the link below :-))
If you've not considered this FORM of writing before, it could be right up your alley for a number of reasons:
✍️ It allows you to offer a PERSPECTIVE, including one that is different to your own.
✍️ It allows you to create a particular VOICE and present a particular POINT OF VIEW.
✍️ It allows you to address SOCIAL ISSUES and/or IDEAS.
✍️ It forces you to make considered choices about your AUDIENCE, CONTEXT and PURPOSE for writing - all things that markers are looking for.
✍️ It is a GENRE that you may not have considered before.
✍️ It allows you to create a MOOD or work on TONE.
All the words in capitals should be VERY familiar to you - that's right! They are all CORE CONCEPTS of the ATAR English Course. They are concepts you should know, understand and be able to engage with in any assessment or examination👍🤓
So an open letter could very well be a terrific option to use in a school composing assessment or in Section 3 of your exam.

ATTITUDES are directly linked to VALUES

The values of a writer, director, character and even yourself underpin attitudes towards people, place, events, ideas and social issues.

The table below is a great place to start but attitudes can be more than just one word. For example, the writer has the attitude that we should more protective of our online information.

The best advice we can give you is to ALWAYS BE SPECIFIC when identifying or discussing attitudes. Simply saying that a character or writer has a 'positive' or 'negative' attitude is TOO VAGUE. You will be rewarded for identifying a specific attitude. 👌




We all deal with stress and pressure in different ways and exam “goblins” are easily identifiable.

They are the students outside the exam hall reciting themes or formulae, talking quickly about all the things they covered (which will sound like a LOT MORE than what you actually did!) and they may be quite jumpy, agitated or nervous. They could even be one of your good mates! Tricky! 🤔

Try to avoid these people if you can. Their behavior will only get you rattled, make you question what you’ve studied and question if you are prepared 🤨. Self-doubt starts to creep in 😫 followed close behind by panic 😱


Go sit in the sun or move to a quieter area, listen to the birds, take some deep breaths, swing your arms, do some stretches. You need to be as relaxed as you can – which is bloody difficult given the situation!

👍 CHECK - does your desk wobble? Yes? Throw your hand up straight away and get some paper from a supervisor to level it out. Nothing worse than a wobbly writing surface!
👍 Take 3 deep breaths (QUIETLY!). Amazing how deep breathing can still a racing heart!
👍 Use your READING TIME effectively! In Responding and Composing – read ALL the options. The one that catches your eye, that looks the easiest may not necessarily be the case. Check ‘em all.

Don’t pay much attention to what others say after the exam. Your answers will NOT be the same as anyone else. And the beauty of English is that there is NEVER JUST ONE answer 😀

Don’t doubt yourself. You did your best! Treat yourself to something nice (mmm…..subway club!) then focus on your next exam!